What is diabetes and which symptoms it has?
Diabetes mellitus is a violation of the metabolism of carbohydrates and water in the body. A consequence of this is a dysfunction of the pancreas. It is the pancreas that produces a hormone called insulin. Insulin is involved in the process of sugar processing. And without it, the body can not convert sugar into glucose. As a result, sugar accumulates in our blood and is excreted in large quantities from the body through urine. In parallel with this, water exchange is violated. Tissues can not hold water in themselves, and as a result, a lot of inferior water is excreted through the kidneys.
If a person’s sugar (glucose) content in the blood is higher than normal, then this is the main sign of the disease – diabetes. In the human body, the cells of the pancreas (beta cells) respond to the production of insulin. In turn, insulin is a hormone that is responsible for delivering glucose to the cells in the right amount. What happens in the body with diabetes? The body produces insufficient amounts of insulin, while the sugar and glucose content in the blood is increased, but the cells begin to suffer from a lack of glucose. With diabetes, the pancreas produces insufficient insulin (or does not produce it at all), or insulin is produced, but cannot be effectively used by the body.
Types of Diabetes
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus: This type is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. Most often this type of diabetes affects young thin people, under the age of 40. The disease is severe enough, insulin is required for the treatment. Reason: the body produces antibodies that exterminate pancreatic cells that produce insulin. It is almost impossible to completely recover from type 1 diabetes, although there are cases of restoration of pancreatic functions, but this is possible only under special conditions and natural raw nutrition. Since insulin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, insulin administration in the form of tablets is not possible. Insulin is administered along with a meal. It is very important to follow a strict diet, completely easily digestible carbohydrates (sugar, sweets, fruit juices, sugar-containing lemonades) are excluded from the diet.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus: This type of diabetes is insulin-independent. Most often type 2 diabetes affects elderly obese people, after 40 years old. Reason: loss of cell sensitivity to insulin due to overabundance of nutrients in them. The use of insulin for treatment is not necessary for every patient. Only a qualified specialist can prescribe treatment course. To begin with, such patients are prescribed a diet. It is very important to follow the doctor’s recommendations completely. It is recommended to reduce weight slowly (2-3 kg per month), to achieve a normal weight, which must be maintained throughout life.
Which Symptoms will Help You Understand That You May
Absence, lack or misuse of insulin by the body leads to an increase in the level of sugar in the blood – this is one of the main symptoms of diabetes. Diabetes can occur at any age – in recent years, it is found in preschool children as well. The earlier the treatment is started, the more likely it is to avoid the development of complications and to maintain health. So, what should alarm you?
- Frequent urination: With an increase in the level of sugar in the blood, the body begins to try to get rid of it – withdraw it with urine. As a result, there is a frequent urination, which causes a lot of anxiety to patients, especially at night.
- Feeling of strong thirst: Frequent urination is expected to provoke dehydration and severe thirst. You may want to drink constantly during the day, although previously you didn’t have such symptoms. Strong thirst can be accompanied by dry mouth – it can also cause a desire to drink water and other drinks more often.
- Increased appetite: Increased appetite and a constant sense of hunger are symptoms of type 2 diabetes. The pancreas produces more and more insulin, which the body is unable to use for its intended purpose. The presence in the blood of a large amount of insulin leads to the fact that the brain receives a signal about the need for a new portion of food. This happens even if you have recently eaten and the stomach is still full.
- Numbness of the extremities: Damage to the nerves with increasing blood sugar leads to the development of diabetic neuropathy. Its first signs are numbness of fingers and toes and severe pain. With the timely start of treatment, the progression of neuropathy stops, numbness disappears. If you do not start therapy on time, it threatens with serious complications: the pain intensifies, the innervation is violated more violently, trophic ulcers and other unpleasant symptoms may appear.
- Blurred vision: Eye problems also often occur in the early stages of the development of type 2 diabetes. At the initial stages of the lesion, patients can feel only “fog”, which disappears after the normalization of sugar in the blood. In the absence of the same treatment, severe forms of diabetic retinopathy can develop – reduced visual acuity and complete blindness.
If you notice one or more symptoms, and besides them you often get tired, suddenly lose weight or gain it, experience severe itching (especially in the genital area), and also notice the wounds that do not heal for a long time – you need to turn to doctor as soon as possible and get the professional examination.